Air-sampling instruments are supplied by
Filter Sampling Station
A second generation air sampling station which uses a high-precision dynamic cyclone inlet to collect both PM2.5 and PM10 on separate filters within a single cartridge.
Filters samples for 9 day periods, with 6 filters collecting PM2.5 and 1 filter collecting PM10 along with one travelling blank. A cartridge thus samples autonomously for 54 days before needing to be replaced.
This 3-wavelength integrating nephelometer measures aerosol scattering, RH% and temperature every 15 seconds.
A clean-air reference system allows for the regular base-line correction while in the field.
Like the sampling stations, a cyclone inlet allows for a dynamic size cut which lets optical properties of the PM2.5 and PM10 fractions to be measured.
At Washington University's Center for Aerosol Science and Engineering
Automated Filter Weighing
Teflon filters are weighed using Mettler Toledo's automated filter weighing and data processing system
System is EPA 40 CFR 1065; EPA 40 CFR 1066; Euro 4, Euro 5, Euro 6 compliant
Filters are loaded into silos, and selected in sequence. The filter carrier is picked up by a mechanical arm and delivered to the balance
Static is minimized for weighing by a built in Faraday cage which surrounds the balance platform
Weights are automatically recorded
Weighing is done at controlled temperature (21-23 deg C) and humidity (38-40 % RH)
Both anions (Nitrate, Sulfate, Chloride) and cations (Magnesium, Calcium, Potassium, Sodium, Ammonium) concentrations are quantitatively determined
Separate separatory columns in individual instruments are used to analyze anions and cations on the Thermo Dionex systems
Trace metal content is quantified with the Panalytical Epsilon 4 X-Ray Fluorescence spectrometer
At Dalhousie University
Sartorius Ultra-Fine Balance is accurate to ± 0.1 μg and is paired with an anti-static blower.
Filters are weighed in a ISO-4 standard clean room. Measurements are taken at controlled temperature (20-30 deg C) and humidity (30-40 % RH)
Effective Black Carbon
Effective Black Carbon (EBC) is measured via reflectance using a Diffusion Systems Smoke Stain Reflectometer (SSR)
Total EBC is logarithmically dependant on the reflectance R. EBC is thus quantified using an empirical conversion constant
Inductively-Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry
(Water Studies Lab)
Trace elements are extracted from Teflon filters using an HNO3 acid digestion on a heating block
Elemental concentration are detectable down to 0.1 ng/m3 and up to 1000 ng/m3
Metals of natural origin (Na, Mg, Mn, Al, Ti, Ba) and also elements commonly associated with anthropogenic activity (K, V, Cr, Fe, Zn, As, Ni, Pb) are all quantified